Similar species: The closely related spotted towhee is an uncommon migrant in western Missouri, less common in eastern Missouri.  Reviews show that animal matter makes up a larger proportion of the diet in the breeding season. Eastern Towhee, Life History, All About Birds – Cornell Lab of Ornithology, "Eastern Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus BBS Trend Map, 1966 - 2015", "Breeding season demography and movements of Eastern Towhees at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina", 10.1676/0043-5643(2000)112[0243:BSDAMO]2.0.CO;2, "Survival of some common passerines in a Pennsylvania woodlot", "Longevity records of North American birds: Coerebinae through Estrildidae", "Use of even-aged stands by winter and spring bird communities", "Vertical distribution of birds in a Louisiana bottomland hardwood forest", "Structure, seasonal dynamics, and habitat relationships of avian communities in small even-aged forest stands", "Eastern towhee numbers increase following defoliation by gypsy moths", "Importance of Coarse Woody Debris to Avian Communities in Loblolly Pine Forests", "Relationships between fire and bird density in coastal scrub and slash pine flatwoods in Florida", 10.1676/0043-5643(2000)112[0249:UOSHAF]2.0.CO;2, 10.1676/0043-5643(2000)112[0524:BNEIAF]2.0.CO;2, "Intersexual and interspecific differences in the foraging behavior of rufous-sided towhees, common yellowthroats and prairie warblers in the pine barrens of southeastern Massachusetts", "Effect of edge on breeding forest bird species", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eastern_towhee&oldid=994593765, Native birds of the Eastern United States, Extant Late Pleistocene first appearances, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from public domain works of the United States Government, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 15:01. The eyes are red, white for birds in the southeast.  Adults have rufous sides, a white belly, and a long dark tail with white edges. The taxonomy of the towhees has been under debate in recent decades, and formerly this bird and the spotted towhee were considered a single species, the rufous-sided towhee. Danish. Brewer's sparrow. Listen to more sounds of this species from the ML archive. American tree sparrow.  In fall and winter, plants make up 79% and 85% of the diet, respectively. ), red maple (Acer rubrum), black cherry, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. (1951). Reports of eastern towhees nesting as early as late March in Florida and Georgia, in mid- to late April in some midwestern states, and as late as mid-May in northern New England were summarized in a literature review. Common name. Baird's sparrow. Weasels (Mustela spp.) The user base has continued to swell, and new developers are leaving their mark upon the code.  In southern and eastern Pennsylvania eastern towhee nest success was not significantly (p≥0.10) different on sites with gradual edges and those with more distinct edges between "wildlife habitat openings" and oak-hickory forest. Other species included hawthorn (Crataegus spp. A review of eastern towhees in New Hampshire describes arrival in late April to May with the majority departing in September. Eastern towhee.  Average density of eastern towhees across 6 habitat types in Pennsylvania was significantly (p<0.05) negatively correlated with density of overstory trees and basal area of overstory trees. For instance, in Pennsylvania in spring, observations of eastern towhees below 3 ft (0.91 m) from the ground occurred significantly (p<0.05) more than expected based on random spatial distribution, and observations above 3 ft (0.91 m) occurred significantly (p<0.05) less than would be expected. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press, Mumford, Russell E.; Keller, Charles E. (1984). Juveniles are brown overall. However, eastern towhee densities did not differ significantly between a 1-year old mixed aspen (Populus tremuloides, P. grandidentata) clearcut, a 5-year old aspen clearcut, and a mature aspen stand. Imitations include Carolina Wren, Blue Jay, Red-bellied Woodpecker, Eastern Bluebird (song and flight call), Northern Flicker, etc.  Several birds are known to prey on both young and adult eastern towhees, including northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), Broad-winged (Buteo platypterus), short-tailed (Buteo brachyurus), sharp-shinned (Accipiter striatus) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii). 5th ed. In: Arner, Dale, ed.  In central New Jersey eastern towhees were significantly (p=0.03) more abundant in gray dogwood (Cornus racemosa) shrubland than either eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) or multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) shrublands. Eastern towhee - … When gleaning in a southeastern Massachusetts pitch pine barren, eastern towhees preferred species such as pitch pine, bear oak (Q. ilicifolia), and other deciduous trees, mainly oaks.  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